Tripotassium citrate monohydrate is the common tribasic potassium salt of citric acid, also known as potassium citrate. It is produced by complete neutralisation of citric acid with a high purity potassium source and subsequent crystallisation.
Tripotassium citrate is used in foods, beverages, and technical applications as buffering, sequestering or emulsifying agent. It usually replaces trisodium citrate whenever a low sodium content is desired. In pharmaceuticals it is used as potassium source and as active ingredient to treat urinary duct stones. When added to oral care products, tripotassium citrate is the active ingredient to reduce the sensitivity of the teeth.
Tripotassium citrate occurs as transparent crystals or a white, granular powder. It is an odourless substance with a cooling, salty taste. It is slightly deliquescent when exposed to moist air, freely soluble in water and almost insoluble in ethanol (96 %). In contrary to other potassium salts, it is less bitter and thus can be used at higher concentration levels.
Tripotassium citrate is a non-toxic, slightly alkaline salt with low reactivity. It is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. In its monohydrate form it is very hygroscopic and must be protected from exposure to humidity. Care must be taken not to expose tripotassium citrate monohydrate to high pressure during transport and storage as this may result in caking.
Tripotassium citrate is supplied in accordance with the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex (FCC), the US Pharmacopeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) and the Commission Regulation (EU) No. 231/2012 always in their latest versions.
The following granulation types are available:
Tripotassium citrate is supplied in 25 kg net polyethylene lined paper bags.
- White granular powder
- Cooling, salty taste profile, less bitter compared to other potassium salts
- Very soluble in water
- Potassium content of 36 %
- Slightly alkaline salt with low reactivity
- Chemically and microbiologically stable
- Fully biodegradable
- Allergen and GMO free
- Potassium fortification
- pH adjuster
- Buffering agent
- Complexing/stabilising agent
- Emulsifying salt
- Chelating agent
- Flavour enhancer
- Synergist with antioxidants
- Sequestering agent
- Sodium replacement, sodium-free pH regulation
- Systemic alkalizer in pharmaceuticals
- Treatment of kidney stones and bladder infection
- Reduce sensitivity to pain of teeth
- Stabilises milk and soy products during heat treatment
- Reduces sensitivity of teeth in oral care products
- Controls the burning rate of cigarette paper
- Baby Food, Infant Formula
- Cereals, Snacks
- Desserts, Ice Cream
- Fruit Preparations, Sweet Spreads
- Fruits, Vegetables
- Meat, Seafood
- Ready Meals, Instant Food
- Sauces, Dressings, Seasonings
- Soy Products
- Table Top Products
- Alcoholic Beverages
- Carbonated Soft Drinks
- Instant Drinks, Syrups
- Juice Drinks
- RTD Tea and Coffee
- Sports and Energy Drinks
- Colour Cosmetics
- Hair Care
- Oral Care
- Skin Care
- Soap and Bath Products
- Dish Washing
- Industrial Cleaners
- Laundry Care
- Agrochemicals, Fertilisers
- Metal Surface Treatment
- Clinical Nutrition
- OTC, Food Supplements
- Pharmaceutical Products
- Pet Food
In Europe, tripotassium citrate is listed as a generally permitted food additive (E 332) and may be added to all foodstuffs, following the "quantum satis" principle as regulated in EU Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008 (Annex 2), as long as no special regulation restricts the use. In addition to existing national allowances in some countries, tricpotassium citrate is on the positive list of the EU Regulation (EC) No. 1925/2006 on food fortification and is allowed in food supplements (Directive 2002/46/EC). It is listed as mineral salt in the EU Regulation (EC) No. 609/2013 on food intended for infants and young children, food for special medical purposes, and total diet replacement for weight control.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) affirmed tripotassium citrate as generally recognised as safe (GRAS) food substance and permitted the use in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice (21 CFR § 182.1625 & 21 CFR § 184.1625).
Tripotassium citrate is produced according to GMP for active substances. It is registered with the US FDA since May 2000 with Drug Master File 14847 Type ll and at the EDQM since October 2012 with a Certificate of Suitability (CEP).