Monosodium citrate is a monobasic salt of citric acid and is produced by partial neutralisation of citric acid with a high purity sodium source and subsequent crystallisation. It is supplied as anhydrous material. As partially neutralised salt it occupies an intermediate position between citric acid and the neutral or weakly alkaline trisodium citrate. Monosodium citrate is used if a buffering effect is required or if citric acid is considered to be too aggressive for the formulation. Monosodium citrate is also less hygroscopic than citric acid, thus less prone to caking and preferred in critical formulations such as dry blends, instant preparations or tablets.
Monosodium citrate is a white, odourless, fine or crystalline granular powder with slightly acidic taste. It is easily soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol.
It is used whenever a buffering effect compared to the pure acid is required (e.g. acid sensitive ingredients are present).
For preparations which are sensitive to water (e.g. sodium bicarbonate in effervescent tablets) the anhydrous monosodium citrate can replace water containing ingredients. Due to its high decomposition temperature (>200°C) and low water content (<0.4 %), it is also the preferred acid source in baking powder or blowing agents in order to prevent premature reaction between acid and alkaline source.
When used as endothermic blowing agent in the plastics industry, it is the preferred food grade, non-toxic alternative to exothermic blowing agents such as azo compounds (e.g. azodicarbonamide), hydrazine derivatives or semicarbazides. Monosodium citrate D is specifically used in this application due to its approx. 10°C lower decomposition temperature compared to monosodium citrate F3500 and is also recommended for other applications where a quicker dissociation is required.
Monosodium citrate is supplied in accordance with the requirements of the German Pharmaceuticals Codex (DAC) and the Commission Regulation (EU) No. 231/2012 always in their latest versions.
The following granulation types are available:
- Fine Granular
Jungbunzlauer MSC is available in 20 kg and 25 kg net polyethylene lined paper bags.
- White granular powder
- Pleasant, slightly acidic taste profile
- Partially neutralised salt
- Easily soluble in water
- Practically insoluble in ethanol
- Low hygroscopicity
- Low water content
- Good compressability
- Allergen and GMO free
- Mild acid carrier
- Replacement for citric acid in sensitive formulations, e.g. in effervescent systems
- Buffering agent
- Used in water-sensitive formulations due to its low water content
- Endothermic blowing agent
- Cereals, Snacks
- Desserts, Ice Cream
- Fruit Preparations, Sweet Spreads
- Meat, Seafood
- Ready Meals, Instant Food
- Sauces, Dressings, Seasonings
- Table Top Products
- Carbonated Soft Drinks
- Instant Drinks, Syrups
- Sports and Energy Drinks
- Colour Cosmetics
- Hair Care
- Oral Care
- Skin Care
- Soap and Bath Products
- Inks, Paints, Coatings
- Plastics, Polymers
- OTC, Food Supplements
- Pharmaceutical Products
In Europe, monosodium citrate is listed as a generally permitted food additive (E331) and may be added to all foodstuffs, following the "quantum satis" principle as regulated in EU Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008 (Annex 2), as long as no special regulation restricts the use.
In the USA, monosodium citrate is generally recognised as safe (self-affirmed GRAS) within the meaning of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, and may be used in food and beverages in full compliance with the applicable Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations.